Meeting Recap: The Datebooks of Ransom Goring

On March 26, Mary Friesen introduced the Society to the Goring family of Niagara.  

Francis Goring was born in England in 1755.  On the eve of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Goring arrived in Quebec.  He soon moved to Fort Niagara where he worked as a clerk in the fur trade.  Through surviving letters and journal entries, it is apparent that Francis enjoyed living in the Niagara area.  He settled permanently and raised a family.

One of Francis’ children was Abraham Hamilton Goring who also settled in the area and had a family including a son – Ransom Goring (born in 1842).  Like his grandfather, Ransom was a dedicated journal writer.  He would comment on the day’s events regularly and would even take extra time on Sundays to reflect on the previous week and add to his entries.  Mary Friesen found three years of Ransom’s journals in the Niagara Falls Library and was compelled to transcribe and publish his words.  The journals span the years 1867 to 1869 – critical years in Canada’s history.  Not only does Ransom’s works chronicle the daily life of a Niagara resident but it also sheds light on a number of other interesting topics such as Canada’s militant feelings following the Fenian Raids, the spas of St. Catharines, weather, the social culture of the area, politics, education, courtship and marriage, and shipbuilding.  What better way to understand the past than through the words of one who experienced it.

Friesen’s book is entitled “Renascentur: The Datebooks of Ransom Goring”.  Renascentur was the family’s motto and means “They will rise again” in Latin.

Meeting Recap: The Myth of Laura Secord by Alun Hughes

On February 26, Professor Alun Hughes of Brock University methodically retraced the famous and heroic trek of Laura Secord using primary evidence in an effort to remove the myth and to uncover what most likely happened on that historic night.

A quick retelling of the classic story: on 21 June 1813 in Queenston, Laura learned of the American’s plans to surprise attack the British forces at Beaverdams.  The next day Secord set out on foot to warn Lieutenant FitzGibbon all the while taking a harsh route through forests and swampland to avoid being detected by the American pickets.  After her harrowing journey, Secord came across a First Nation’s encampment.  These British allies took Laura to FitzGibbon at John DeCew’s house where she relayed the information.  On 23 June, the British and First Nation forces ambushed the Americans at Beaverdams and were victorious.  The story of Laura’s journey became mythologized over time and she has been honoured in countless means such as statues, monuments, postage stamps, books, plays and more.

Alun asked two questions:  1) Did Laura Secord’s walk make a difference?  2) What route did she actually take?

Question 1: In 1932, W. Stewart Wallace wrote The Story of Laura Secord: A Study in Historical Evidence in which he looked at all of the contemporary reports, histories and newspapers.  There was no mention of Secord’s acts.  The only evidence of Secord’s efforts came from Laura herself.  In 1837, Laura made a petition to run a ferry and outlined her heroic efforts.  In 1839, FitzGibbon verified Secord’s petition in a open statement.  Secord made another petition for a pension after her husband died.  Again, she states her key role in the outcome of the Battle of Beaverdam.  Wallace did not buy Secord’s statements as her need for money in both cases was seen as a motive to embellish.  When other resources started to use Secord as part of the War of 1812 narrative, details became erroneous and Laura’s role became increasingly important and detailed.  To Wallace, Secord could not complete the walk as recounted because the timing of the episode did not work out.

However, in 1934, new evidence surfaced verifying Secord’s story.  In the 1820s, James Secord, Laura’s husband, made a petition for land and used FitzGibbon as proof that she left Queenston on June 22.  He made a second petition to manage the Brock Monument that included an even more detailed account from FitzGibbon further verifying Laura’s importance to the events that transpired from June 21 to June 23.

Ultimately, we will never truly know if Laura Secord’s walk made a difference to the Battle of Beaverdams.  However, there can be no doubt that she did the walk at considerable risk and with the most noble intentions.

Question 2:  There have been a number of inaccurate maps of Laura Secord’s route created over the years.  One such map was created by Jacob Cotton in 1917.  Cotton was commissioned by J. Ross Robertson to paint the Decew House, Laura Secord’s home and other landmarks in Niagara including a map of Secord’s route.  Cotton used the verified statements by Secord and FitzGibbons as sources.  Essentially, Cotton’s route resembled most of the others.

Professor Hughes (a cartographer and historian) taking into account the landscape and history, recreated the route as follows:

• Secord left Queenston towards St. David to see her brother Charles Ingersol who was ill
• Towards Homer she went through the swamp – not true; more likely followed the First Nation’s trail south of the Swamp
• At Homer, she crossed the 10 Mile Creek over the bridge
• In St. Catharines, we went along Queenston St. and St. Paul to cross 12 Mile Creek over the bridge
• She moved down Pelham Road toward the Village of Power Glen where she would have passed the Tourney house (family friends)
•  Crossed the 12 Mile Creek again before climbing the Niagara Escarpment
•    Arriving in John DeCew’s field, she encountered the First Nations who lead her to the DeCew house.

Conclusion on the route according to Alun Hughes:  If this new route is correct, Laura Secord travelled approximately 15 miles on foot – from sunrise at about 4:30 a.m. to nautical twilight around 9:30 p.m.  Total 17 hours.

Historic Timeline of the War of 1812

Along the Niagara Frontier (with particular interest to Grantham Township)

 

1812

 

June 18 – United States President James Madison signs Declaration of War against Great Britain

 

July 12 – American forces under Brig.-Gen. William Hull cross Detroit River and invade Upper Canada at Sandwich

 

August 16 – British forces under Maj.-Gen. Isaac Brock capture Fort Detroit

 

August 24Maj.-Gen. Isaac Brock returns to Fort George (Niagara), Upper Canada after capture of Detroit

 Brock shot at Queenston

October 9 – American forces capture British brigs Caledonia and Detroit (subsequently destroyed) in the Niagara River, off Fort Erie, Upper Canada

 

October 13 – Major artillery duel between Fort Niagara (below Youngstown), New York and Fort George

 

October 13 – Battle of Queenston Heights, Upper Canada

Brock shot at Queenston

 

 

October 13 – Death of Maj.-Gen. Isaac Brock and Lieut.-Col. John Macdonell at Battle of Queenston Heights

 

October 16 – Funerals held for Brock and Macdonell at Fort George

 

November 10 – American Navy under command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey gains control of Lake Ontario 

 

November 28 – 30 – American forces under Brig.-Gen. Alexander Smyth invade Upper Canada across the Niagara River at Fort Erie

 

November 28 – Battle of Frenchman’s Creek, near Fort Erie

 

1813

 

January 9 – British Declaration of War against the United States

 

March 17 – 18 – Artillery duel between Black Rock, New York and Fort Erie

 

April 27 – Battle and surrender of Town of York, Upper Canada to U.S. Maj.-Gen. Henry Dearborn; American forces take control of the Great Lakes and subsequently burn Town of York

 

May 25 – 27 – Artillery barrage on Fort George and capture by American forces

 

May 27 – British forces under Brig.-Gen. John Vincent abandon Fort George; retreat along lakeshore westward toward Burlington Heights, Upper Canada (passing through Grantham Township, Upper Canada)

 

June 6 – Battle of Stoney Creek, Upper Canada

 

June 8 – Engagement at Forty Mile Creek (Grimsby), Upper Canada; American forces retreat to Fort George, passing through Grantham Township

 

June 9 – American forces burn Fort Erie and withdraw their forces from Fort Erie, Chippawa and Queenston to Fort George

 

June 22 – Laura Secord leaves her home in Queenston and walks to DeCew House, Thorold, Upper Canada to warn British forces of an American attack

 

June 24 – Battle of Beaver Dams (“fight in the Beechwoods”), Thorold

 

July 5 – British forces under Col. John Clark of the 2nd Lincoln Militia from Chippawa raid Fort Schlosser, on Niagara River, north of Buffalo, New York

 

July 8 – Action at Butler’s Farm at Two Mile Creek, Niagara, Upper Canada

 

July 11 – British forces under Lieut.-Col. Cecil Bisshopp and Col. Clark Raid Black Rock, New York

 

July – British General John Vincent establishes his headquarters in George Adams’ home in Grantham Township (near the bridge over the Twelve Mile Creek near the village of St. Catharines)

 

July 29 – Action at Burlington Beach, Upper Canada

 

July 31 – American forces raid and occupy Town of York for a second time

 

August 7 -10 – U.S. fleet battles British fleet on Lake Ontario

 

August 8USS Hamilton and USS Scourge sink in a storm on Lake Ontario off Twelve Mile Creek

 

August 24 – Action at Fort George

 

September 10 – Naval Battle of Lake Erie

 

September 28 – Burlington Races (Naval encounter) at Burlington, Upper Canada

 

October 19 – American forces destroy and pillage George Adam’s home, distillery and bake house in Grantham Township (near the bridge over the Twelve Mile Creek near the village of St. Catharines)

 

December 10 – American Forces under Brig.-Gen. George McClure evacuate Fort George and burn Niagara, Upper Canada and retreat to Fort Niagara

 

December 12 – British forces re-occupy Fort George

 

December 19British forces capture Fort Niagara

 

December 19 – 21 – British forces burn Lewiston, Youngstown and Manchester (Niagara Falls), New York

 

December 22 – British forces take Fort Schlosser

 

December 29 – 31 – British forces burn Buffalo and Black Rock

 

1814

 

May 23 to June 21 – Treason Trials underway in Ancaster, Upper Canada

 

July 3 – American forces under Maj.-Gen. Jacob Brown invade Upper Canada and capture Fort Erie

 

July 5 – Battle of Chippawa, Upper Canada

 

July 18 – American forces burn the hamlet of St David’s, Upper Canada

 

July 20 – Eight of the Traitors found guilty at the Ancaster Assizes are hanged on Burlington Heights

 

July 23 – British 104th under Lieut.-Gen. Gordon Drummond arrive at Twelve Mile Creek from Town of York

 

July 25 – Battle of Lundy’s Lane, (Niagara Falls), Upper Canada

 

July 26 – American forces burn Bridgewater Mills (Burch’s Mills, above Niagara Falls), Upper Canada

 

August 3 – British forces cross Niagara River and engage American forces at Conjocta Creek/Black Rock, New York and are repulsed, returning to Upper Canada

 

August 4 – British forces under Lieut.-Gen. Drummond begin the siege of Fort Erie; the casualties of this siege result in Fort Erie becoming the bloodiest battlefield in Canada

 

August 12USS Somers and USS Ohio captured in Lake Erie/Niagara River off Fort Erie

 

August 14 – British forces assault on Snake Hill Battery (Fort Erie), Upper Canada

 

August 15 – British forces under Lieut.-Gen. Drummond fail in assault on Fort Erie

 

August 25 – British forces burn Washington, D.C.

 

September 17 – American forces from Fort Erie launch a successful sortie against Drummond’s batteries

 

September 21 – British forces end siege of Fort Erie and retreat to Chippawa

 

October 15 – Skirmish at Chippawa

 

October 19 – Battle of Cook’s Mills (near Welland) on Lyons CreekUpper Canada

 

November 5 – American forces evacuate Fort Erie, destroy what remains of fort and return to Buffalo

 

November 15 – British forces re-occupy Fort Erie after American withdrawal

 

December 24 – Treaty of Ghent (Belgium) signed to end the War of 1812

 

1815

 

February 16 – U.S. Senate approves Treaty of Ghent; 17th President Madison ratifies Treaty and it is proclaimed on 18th. War of 1812 officially ends

 

May 22 – American forces re-occupy Fort Niagara

February 26: Alun Hughes Revisits the History of Laura Secord

“The Myth of Laura Secord: Seeking the Truth Beneath the Chocolate Coating” by Alun Hughes

Meeting between Secord and Fitzgibbon
Meeting between Secord and Fitzgibbon

 

Time / Place: Thursday, 26 February 2009, 7:30 P.M., Burgoyne Room of the St. Catharines Museum at Lock 3 (the Welland Canals Centre), 1932 Welland Canals Parkway (formerly Government Road). Wheelchair accessible. Free admission.  All interested persons welcome.

 

The Museum’s traveling exhibit gallery will be open for viewing a half hour before the meeting.

 

We hope to see you there.

Upcoming Meetings – Winter 2009

The Historical Society of St. Catharines generally meets in the Burgoyne Room of the St. Catharines Museum at Lock 3 (the Welland Canals Centre), 1932 Welland Canals Parkway (formerly Government Road) at 7:30 unless otherwise posted. The facility is wheelchair accessible. Free admission to the Society meetings.  All interested parties welcome.

 

 

January 22 – “History of the Canada Hair Cloth Company” by Jim McFarlane

 

February 26 – “The Myth of Laura Secord: Seeking the Truth Beneath the Chocolate Coating” by Alun Hughes

 

March 26 – “The Ransom Goring Journals” by Mary Friesen

 

* Note: the St. Catharines Museum will generously open its traveling exhibit gallery for viewing a half hour before each meeting at no cost to the Society.

 

History of the Silver Spire Church

Report by Bill Stevens:

 

At our October 23, 2008 Society meeting Rev. Dr. Phil Cline spoke to an audience of 40 about the Silver Spire United Church.  In January 2008, Memorial, Welland Avenue and St. Paul Street United churches voted to amalgamate at the St. Paul Street site. The amalgamation took effect on July 1, 2008 and a new church congregation with over 700 members was established. The Welland Avenue and Memorial church buildings were vacated and sold off.

 

The history of St. Paul Street United Church begins with the first known record dated 1816 showing people being called “Methodists” meeting at the home of Rufus Wright, at the corner of Ontario and Trafalgar streets, for the worship of God and spiritual fellowship. Brothers Rufus and Gershom Wright were staunch Methodists and they played a large role in promoting the faith in St. Catharines.

 

During 1822-24, when  Rev. Ezra Adams was the Pastor, the land on St. Paul Street was purchased and a frame chapel was erected. The settlement of St. Catharines continued to grow and so did the congregation and St. Catharines became an independent circuit in 1832. Egerton Ryerson, the founder of the public school system in Ontario, became the first superintendent. The St. Catharines Circuit extended many miles in every direction, including Thorold, Beaver Dams, St. Johns, etc. In 1854, St. Catharines and its immediate vicinity were made a separate circuit, and the remainder was set aside as another circuit with two preachers, a married man and a single one, being appointed. 


The continued growth of the congregation saw the chapel expanded with an addition in 1845. Eventually a new building, the present church was built between 1860-63. The building contract was given in March 1861, to Mr. Henry Burgoyne. The new building was ready for use in 1863, and its cost was approximately $12,000. Subsequently, in 1870, a spire was added at a cost of $2500.

 

In December 1870, a meeting of the Quarterly Official Board was called to consider building a new Wesleyan Methodist Church on Welland Avenue. A resolution to that effect was unanimously carried, and a Board of Trustees for the new church was recommended.


Early in 1871 the lot for the building was selected, and the Board of Trustees chosen. In 1875 a new Wesleyan Church on Niagara Street was also built (the predecessor of Memorial Church) and in 1876 it was united to St. Paul Street Church, the connection lasting for several years.

 

On January l0th, 1876, the St. Paul Street building was nearly destroyed by fire. Thanks to the efforts of the fire brigade the flames were kept inside the walls and roof, and while the damage was great, the building was not destroyed. Restoration, however, cost a large sum, ($10,000) at a time when there was a financial depression in Canada. The Welland Avenue Church became independent in that same year, and in 1879, Niagara Street, Louth and Grantham churches were made into a separate circuit.

 

In 1890 the present Sunday School was erected, and the old church was removed to make room for the new building. Over the next century many improvements were made to the interior of the building. In 1909 an organ was installed. The building survived yet another fire in 1962 and was once again restored. The building has received a heritage designation and a brief description reads as follows:

 

366 St. Paul Street: Built of red brick, favoured by the Methodist Church, the structure was built in 1861 having rounded windows, pinnacled and centre towered Italianate style. Although the church was seriously damaged by fire, the original structure was retained in the reconstruction of the building. The exterior of the original church remains as constructed in 1861 with the exception of change of the front entrance in 1956.”

 

More information on the Silver Spire Church can be found on the web site  http://www.silverspire.ca/